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These magnetic fields can trap particles from the solar wind and other sources, creating belts of charged particles such as the Van Allen radiation belts.

Planets without magnetic fields, such as Mars, have their atmospheres gradually eroded by the solar wind. Interstellar space is the physical space within a galaxy beyond the influence each star has upon the encompassed plasma.

This is enriched with trace amounts of heavier atoms formed through stellar nucleosynthesis. These atoms are ejected into the interstellar medium by stellar winds or when evolved stars begin to shed their outer envelopes such as during the formation of a planetary nebula.

A number of molecules exist in interstellar space, as can tiny 0. Large regions of higher density matter known as molecular clouds allow chemical reactions to occur, including the formation of organic polyatomic species.

Much of this chemistry is driven by collisions. Energetic cosmic rays penetrate the cold, dense clouds and ionize hydrogen and helium, resulting, for example, in the trihydrogen cation.

An ionized helium atom can then split relatively abundant carbon monoxide to produce ionized carbon, which in turn can lead to organic chemical reactions.

This volume nearly coincides with a region of space known as the Local Bubble , which is characterized by a lack of dense, cold clouds. It forms a cavity in the Orion Arm of the Milky Way galaxy, with dense molecular clouds lying along the borders, such as those in the constellations of Ophiuchus and Taurus.

This volume contains about 10 4 —10 5 stars and the local interstellar gas counterbalances the astrospheres that surround these stars, with the volume of each sphere varying depending on the local density of the interstellar medium.

When stars are moving at sufficiently high peculiar velocities , their astrospheres can generate bow shocks as they collide with the interstellar medium.

For decades it was assumed that the Sun had a bow shock. Instead, these authors argue that a subsonic bow wave defines the transition from the solar wind flow to the interstellar medium.

Intergalactic space is the physical space between galaxies. Studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies show that the Universe has a foam-like structure, with groups and clusters of galaxies lying along filaments that occupy about a tenth of the total space.

The remainder forms huge voids that are mostly empty of galaxies. Surrounding and stretching between galaxies, there is a rarefied plasma [92] that is organized in a galactic filamentary structure.

The density of the IGM is 5— times the average density of the Universe. At these temperatures, it is called the warm—hot intergalactic medium WHIM.

Although the plasma is very hot by terrestrial standards, 10 5 K is often called "warm" in astrophysics. Computer simulations and observations indicate that up to half of the atomic matter in the Universe might exist in this warm—hot, rarefied state.

A spacecraft enters orbit when its centripetal acceleration due to gravity is less than or equal to the centrifugal acceleration due to the horizontal component of its velocity.

To achieve an orbit, a spacecraft must travel faster than a sub-orbital spaceflight. The rate of orbital decay depends on the satellite's cross-sectional area and mass, as well as variations in the air density of the upper atmosphere.

There is no clear boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space, as the density of the atmosphere gradually decreases as the altitude increases. There are several standard boundary designations, namely:.

The Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework for international space law. It covers the legal use of outer space by nation states, and includes in its definition of outer space the Moon and other celestial bodies.

The treaty states that outer space is free for all nation states to explore and is not subject to claims of national sovereignty.

It also prohibits the deployment of nuclear weapons in outer space. As of , state parties have either ratified or acceded to the treaty.

An additional 25 states signed the treaty, without ratifying it. Since , outer space has been the subject of multiple United Nations resolutions. Of these, more than 50 have been concerning the international co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space and preventing an arms race in space.

Still, there remains no legal prohibition against deploying conventional weapons in space, and anti-satellite weapons have been successfully tested by the US, USSR, China, [] and in , India [] The Moon Treaty turned the jurisdiction of all heavenly bodies including the orbits around such bodies over to the international community.

The treaty has not been ratified by any nation that currently practices human spaceflight. In BCE, Greek philosopher Aristotle suggested that nature abhors a vacuum , a principle that became known as the horror vacui.

This concept built upon a 5th-century BCE ontological argument by the Greek philosopher Parmenides , who denied the possible existence of a void in space.

In ancient China , the 2nd-century astronomer Zhang Heng became convinced that space must be infinite, extending well beyond the mechanism that supported the Sun and the stars.

The surviving books of the Hsüan Yeh school said that the heavens were boundless, "empty and void of substance".

Likewise, the "sun, moon, and the company of stars float in the empty space, moving or standing still". The Italian scientist Galileo Galilei knew that air had mass and so was subject to gravity.

In , he demonstrated that an established force resisted the formation of a vacuum. It would remain for his pupil Evangelista Torricelli to create an apparatus that would produce a partial vacuum in This experiment resulted in the first mercury barometer and created a scientific sensation in Europe.

The French mathematician Blaise Pascal reasoned that if the column of mercury was supported by air, then the column ought to be shorter at higher altitude where the air pressure is lower.

This decrease in pressure was further demonstrated by carrying a half-full balloon up a mountain and watching it gradually expand, then contract upon descent.

In , German scientist Otto von Guericke constructed the first vacuum pump: a device that would further refute the principle of horror vacui.

He correctly noted that the atmosphere of the Earth surrounds the planet like a shell, with the density gradually declining with altitude.

He concluded that there must be a vacuum between the Earth and the Moon. Back in the 15th century, German theologian Nicolaus Cusanus speculated that the Universe lacked a center and a circumference.

He believed that the Universe, while not infinite, could not be held as finite as it lacked any bounds within which it could be contained.

He extended the Copernican heliocentric cosmology to the concept of an infinite Universe filled with a substance he called aether , which did not resist the motion of heavenly bodies.

The concept of a Universe filled with a luminiferous aether retained support among some scientists until the early 20th century.

This form of aether was viewed as the medium through which light could propagate. The null result indicated something was wrong with the concept.

The idea of the luminiferous aether was then abandoned. It was replaced by Albert Einstein 's theory of special relativity , which holds that the speed of light in a vacuum is a fixed constant, independent of the observer's motion or frame of reference.

The first professional astronomer to support the concept of an infinite Universe was the Englishman Thomas Digges in He showed that the star system 61 Cygni had a parallax of just 0.

This corresponds to a distance of over 10 light years. Guillaume in British physicist Arthur Eddington made a similar calculation to derive a temperature of 3.

German physicist Erich Regener used the total measured energy of cosmic rays to estimate an intergalactic temperature of 2.

Wells in For most of human history, space was explored by observations made from the Earth's surface—initially with the unaided eye and then with the telescope.

Before reliable rocket technology, the closest that humans had come to reaching outer space was through balloon flights.

In , the U. The first spacecraft to reach escape velocity was the Soviet Luna 1 , which performed a fly-by of the Moon in It revealed the presence of the solar wind and performed the first fly-by of Venus , although contact was lost before reaching Venus.

The first successful planetary mission was the fly-by of Venus by Mariner 2. Since that time, uncrewed spacecraft have successfully examined each of the Solar System's planets, as well their moons and many minor planets and comets.

They remain a fundamental tool for the exploration of outer space, as well as for observation of the Earth. The absence of air makes outer space an ideal location for astronomy at all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The interplanetary zodiacal dust emits a diffuse near-infrared radiation that can mask the emission of faint sources such as extrasolar planets.

Moving an infrared telescope out past the dust increases its effectiveness. Uncrewed spacecraft in Earth orbit are an essential technology of modern civilization.

They allow direct monitoring of weather conditions , relay long-range communications like television, provide a means of precise navigation , and allow remote sensing of the Earth.

The latter role serves a wide variety of purposes, including tracking soil moisture for agriculture, prediction of water outflow from seasonal snow packs, detection of diseases in plants and trees, and surveillance of military activities.

The deep vacuum of space could make it an attractive environment for certain industrial processes, such as those requiring ultraclean surfaces.

Partially reusable rockets such as the Falcon 9 have lowered access to space below dollars per kilogram. With these new rockets the cost to send materials into space remains prohibitively high for many industries.

Proposed concepts for addressing this issue include, fully reusable launch systems , non-rocket spacelaunch , momentum exchange tethers , and space elevators.

Interstellar travel for a human crew remains at present only a theoretical possibility. The distances to the nearest stars mean it would require new technological developments and the ability to safely sustain crews for journeys lasting several decades.

For example, the Daedalus Project study, which proposed a spacecraft powered by the fusion of deuterium and helium-3 , would require 36 years to reach the "nearby" Alpha Centauri system.

Other proposed interstellar propulsion systems include light sails , ramjets , and beam-powered propulsion.

More advanced propulsion systems could use antimatter as a fuel, potentially reaching relativistic velocities. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Outer space disambiguation. Void between celestial bodies. Main article: Big Bang. See also: Planetary habitability.

See also: Astrobiology , Astrobotany , Plants in space , Animals in space , Effect of spaceflight on the human body , Bioastronautics , and Weightlessness.

Main article: Interplanetary medium. Main article: Interstellar medium. For the album, see Interstellar Space. Main articles: Warm—hot intergalactic medium , Intracluster medium , and Intergalactic dust.

Main article: Geocentric orbit. For the boundary of the universe, see observable universe. Main article: Space law. See also: Space science. Main articles: Astronomy , Astronautics , Spaceflight , Earth observation , Commercialization of space , Space exploration , Human spaceflight , Space habitat , Space advocacy , Space colonization , Benefits of space exploration , and Space manufacturing.

Outer space portal Spaceflight portal Astronomy portal. Earth's location in the Universe List of government space agencies List of topics in space Outline of space science Panspermia Space and survival Space environment Space race Space station Space technology Space weather Space weathering Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar and intergalactic medium Timeline of Solar System exploration Timeline of spaceflight.

Archived from the original on Retrieved June 24, , What is the Universe Made Of? Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP An atomic mass unit is 1.

February , "The temperature structure, mass, and energy flow in the corona and inner solar wind", Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 , : —, Bibcode : ApJ November , Human pulmonary tolerance to dynamic over-pressure , United States Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, archived from the original on , retrieved Added to Watchlist.

Add to Watchlist. Episode credited cast: Monique Alexander …. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

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Intergalactic space is the physical space between galaxies. Studies of the large scale distribution of galaxies show that the Universe has a foam-like structure, with groups and clusters of galaxies lying along filaments that occupy about a tenth of the total space.

The remainder forms huge voids that are mostly empty of galaxies. Surrounding and stretching between galaxies, there is a rarefied plasma [92] that is organized in a galactic filamentary structure.

The density of the IGM is 5— times the average density of the Universe. At these temperatures, it is called the warm—hot intergalactic medium WHIM.

Although the plasma is very hot by terrestrial standards, 10 5 K is often called "warm" in astrophysics.

Computer simulations and observations indicate that up to half of the atomic matter in the Universe might exist in this warm—hot, rarefied state.

A spacecraft enters orbit when its centripetal acceleration due to gravity is less than or equal to the centrifugal acceleration due to the horizontal component of its velocity.

To achieve an orbit, a spacecraft must travel faster than a sub-orbital spaceflight. The rate of orbital decay depends on the satellite's cross-sectional area and mass, as well as variations in the air density of the upper atmosphere.

There is no clear boundary between Earth's atmosphere and space, as the density of the atmosphere gradually decreases as the altitude increases.

There are several standard boundary designations, namely:. The Outer Space Treaty provides the basic framework for international space law.

It covers the legal use of outer space by nation states, and includes in its definition of outer space the Moon and other celestial bodies.

The treaty states that outer space is free for all nation states to explore and is not subject to claims of national sovereignty. It also prohibits the deployment of nuclear weapons in outer space.

As of , state parties have either ratified or acceded to the treaty. An additional 25 states signed the treaty, without ratifying it. Since , outer space has been the subject of multiple United Nations resolutions.

Of these, more than 50 have been concerning the international co-operation in the peaceful uses of outer space and preventing an arms race in space.

Still, there remains no legal prohibition against deploying conventional weapons in space, and anti-satellite weapons have been successfully tested by the US, USSR, China, [] and in , India [] The Moon Treaty turned the jurisdiction of all heavenly bodies including the orbits around such bodies over to the international community.

The treaty has not been ratified by any nation that currently practices human spaceflight. In BCE, Greek philosopher Aristotle suggested that nature abhors a vacuum , a principle that became known as the horror vacui.

This concept built upon a 5th-century BCE ontological argument by the Greek philosopher Parmenides , who denied the possible existence of a void in space.

In ancient China , the 2nd-century astronomer Zhang Heng became convinced that space must be infinite, extending well beyond the mechanism that supported the Sun and the stars.

The surviving books of the Hsüan Yeh school said that the heavens were boundless, "empty and void of substance".

Likewise, the "sun, moon, and the company of stars float in the empty space, moving or standing still". The Italian scientist Galileo Galilei knew that air had mass and so was subject to gravity.

In , he demonstrated that an established force resisted the formation of a vacuum. It would remain for his pupil Evangelista Torricelli to create an apparatus that would produce a partial vacuum in This experiment resulted in the first mercury barometer and created a scientific sensation in Europe.

The French mathematician Blaise Pascal reasoned that if the column of mercury was supported by air, then the column ought to be shorter at higher altitude where the air pressure is lower.

This decrease in pressure was further demonstrated by carrying a half-full balloon up a mountain and watching it gradually expand, then contract upon descent.

In , German scientist Otto von Guericke constructed the first vacuum pump: a device that would further refute the principle of horror vacui.

He correctly noted that the atmosphere of the Earth surrounds the planet like a shell, with the density gradually declining with altitude.

He concluded that there must be a vacuum between the Earth and the Moon. Back in the 15th century, German theologian Nicolaus Cusanus speculated that the Universe lacked a center and a circumference.

He believed that the Universe, while not infinite, could not be held as finite as it lacked any bounds within which it could be contained.

He extended the Copernican heliocentric cosmology to the concept of an infinite Universe filled with a substance he called aether , which did not resist the motion of heavenly bodies.

The concept of a Universe filled with a luminiferous aether retained support among some scientists until the early 20th century. This form of aether was viewed as the medium through which light could propagate.

The null result indicated something was wrong with the concept. The idea of the luminiferous aether was then abandoned. It was replaced by Albert Einstein 's theory of special relativity , which holds that the speed of light in a vacuum is a fixed constant, independent of the observer's motion or frame of reference.

The first professional astronomer to support the concept of an infinite Universe was the Englishman Thomas Digges in He showed that the star system 61 Cygni had a parallax of just 0.

This corresponds to a distance of over 10 light years. Guillaume in British physicist Arthur Eddington made a similar calculation to derive a temperature of 3.

German physicist Erich Regener used the total measured energy of cosmic rays to estimate an intergalactic temperature of 2. Wells in For most of human history, space was explored by observations made from the Earth's surface—initially with the unaided eye and then with the telescope.

Before reliable rocket technology, the closest that humans had come to reaching outer space was through balloon flights.

In , the U. The first spacecraft to reach escape velocity was the Soviet Luna 1 , which performed a fly-by of the Moon in It revealed the presence of the solar wind and performed the first fly-by of Venus , although contact was lost before reaching Venus.

The first successful planetary mission was the fly-by of Venus by Mariner 2. Since that time, uncrewed spacecraft have successfully examined each of the Solar System's planets, as well their moons and many minor planets and comets.

They remain a fundamental tool for the exploration of outer space, as well as for observation of the Earth. The absence of air makes outer space an ideal location for astronomy at all wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum.

The interplanetary zodiacal dust emits a diffuse near-infrared radiation that can mask the emission of faint sources such as extrasolar planets.

Moving an infrared telescope out past the dust increases its effectiveness. Uncrewed spacecraft in Earth orbit are an essential technology of modern civilization.

They allow direct monitoring of weather conditions , relay long-range communications like television, provide a means of precise navigation , and allow remote sensing of the Earth.

The latter role serves a wide variety of purposes, including tracking soil moisture for agriculture, prediction of water outflow from seasonal snow packs, detection of diseases in plants and trees, and surveillance of military activities.

The deep vacuum of space could make it an attractive environment for certain industrial processes, such as those requiring ultraclean surfaces.

Partially reusable rockets such as the Falcon 9 have lowered access to space below dollars per kilogram. With these new rockets the cost to send materials into space remains prohibitively high for many industries.

Proposed concepts for addressing this issue include, fully reusable launch systems , non-rocket spacelaunch , momentum exchange tethers , and space elevators.

Interstellar travel for a human crew remains at present only a theoretical possibility. The distances to the nearest stars mean it would require new technological developments and the ability to safely sustain crews for journeys lasting several decades.

For example, the Daedalus Project study, which proposed a spacecraft powered by the fusion of deuterium and helium-3 , would require 36 years to reach the "nearby" Alpha Centauri system.

Other proposed interstellar propulsion systems include light sails , ramjets , and beam-powered propulsion. More advanced propulsion systems could use antimatter as a fuel, potentially reaching relativistic velocities.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Outer space disambiguation. Void between celestial bodies. Main article: Big Bang.

See also: Planetary habitability. See also: Astrobiology , Astrobotany , Plants in space , Animals in space , Effect of spaceflight on the human body , Bioastronautics , and Weightlessness.

Main article: Interplanetary medium. Main article: Interstellar medium. For the album, see Interstellar Space. Main articles: Warm—hot intergalactic medium , Intracluster medium , and Intergalactic dust.

Main article: Geocentric orbit. For the boundary of the universe, see observable universe. Main article: Space law. See also: Space science.

Main articles: Astronomy , Astronautics , Spaceflight , Earth observation , Commercialization of space , Space exploration , Human spaceflight , Space habitat , Space advocacy , Space colonization , Benefits of space exploration , and Space manufacturing.

Outer space portal Spaceflight portal Astronomy portal. Earth's location in the Universe List of government space agencies List of topics in space Outline of space science Panspermia Space and survival Space environment Space race Space station Space technology Space weather Space weathering Timeline of knowledge about the interstellar and intergalactic medium Timeline of Solar System exploration Timeline of spaceflight.

Archived from the original on Retrieved June 24, , What is the Universe Made Of? Reviews of Modern Physics. Bibcode : RvMP An atomic mass unit is 1.

February , "The temperature structure, mass, and energy flow in the corona and inner solar wind", Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 , : —, Bibcode : ApJ November , Human pulmonary tolerance to dynamic over-pressure , United States Air Force Armstrong Laboratory, archived from the original on , retrieved April 30, , "Aviation medicine.

Problems of altitude I: hypoxia and hyperventilation", British Medical Journal , : —, doi : August 7, , Human Exposure to Vacuum , www.

June 23, , "Acclimation during space flight: effects on human physiology", Canadian Medical Association Journal , 13 : —, doi : November , "The hazards of space travel", Science and Society , 4 11 : —, doi : October 1, The Space Review.

Archived from the original on February 7, This work lists a Hill sphere radius of International Telecommunication Union. Retrieved 12 March December , "Galactic hydrostatic equilibrium with magnetic tension and cosmic-ray diffusion", Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 , : —, Bibcode : ApJ April , "Getting to Low Earth Orbit" , Space Future , archived from the original on , retrieved The Mirk.

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